Most people have heard of or known about a disease like varicose veins. However, not everyone knows that this pathological process affects not only the vessels of the legs, but also the veins of the pelvic organs, which is especially important for women.
To counteract this disease, the first thing you need to know is what symptoms to look for. But it's just as important to have an idea of what these types of varicose veins are, why they develop, and how to deal with them.
The essence of pathology
Varicose veins are a pathology in which a number of pathological changes occur in the vessels, external or internal. First of all, it is about deformations, that is, the expansion and lengthening of the veins, but in addition there is a thinning of the vascular wall, as well as the development of an inadequacy of the valve system. All of these factors lead to impaired blood flow to the vascular bed, as a result of which the blood stagnates and the vessels themselves collapse due to excessive pressure.
The pathology poses a minimal threat in the early stages, but over the course of time the risk increases exponentially, especially when it comes to varicose veins in the pelvic area.
In such situations, the flow of blood from the pelvic organs is disturbed, which initially affects the function of the female sexual organs and the reproductive function.
Due to the stagnation in the pelvic veins affected by varicose veins, an excessive amount of blood accumulates, coming from the external and internal genital organs of the pelvis. In this case, the blood does not "disappear" well into the genital vein, a large magistral vessel. Due to stagnation, edema of internal organs and tissues occurs, an inflammatory process develops, and so on.
Provided that this form of varicose veins progresses, is accompanied by strong and constant sensations of pain, the development of various gynecological diseases, there is a real risk of infertility.
Causes of varicose veins in the pelvis in women
First of all, it's important to understand that pelvic varicose veins are mainly affected by women who have reached puberty. The older the age, the higher the likelihood of developing this disease. If we draw an analogy after 35 years, there is about a 50% probability of varicose veins being diagnosed after 35 years, while that number barely reaches 20% by the age of 20. Of course, predisposing factors play a very important role.
In general, the following reasons and factors for the development of pelvic varicose veins can be distinguished:
- Genetics - Congenital predisposition is a major cause of all types of varicose veins. This is not about the transmission of varicose veins themselves, but about an innate predisposition to the weakness of the valve system, which becomes noticeable over the years. Dysplasia, or thinning of the vessel walls, is also a genetic factor.
- Very often varicose veins develop as a result of severe hormonal imbalances. It could be a menopausal hormonal disorder or hormonal problems caused by prolonged use of powerful hormonal drugs.
- Pregnancy is the reason women are more likely to develop all forms of varicose veins, especially the pelvis. This factor is diverse and combines both hormonal changes and increased loads, since a growing fetus increases the pressure on the organs and vessels of the pelvic region.
- Excessive exertion - with some likelihood, pelvic varicose veins can develop when a woman does hard physical work, subjects herself to strenuous exercise, or simply spends a lot of time on her feet due to her professional activities (hairdressers, salespeople, surgeons, cooks). . . . This can also include being overweight, since obesity leads to a constant increase in the load on the legs and pelvis, and cholesterol affects the condition of blood vessels.
- The medal also has a downside, an excessively sedentary and sedentary lifestyle can also lead to varicose veins. The lack of an adequate level of mobility leads to stagnant processes in the pelvic region.
- Intimate problems, mostly related to gender. This can be a long absence or a systematic premature interruption of intercourse, the inability to achieve orgasm, etc.
- Various diseases of the genital and intrapelvic organs.
- Pathologies of the cardiovascular system and blood clotting, such as thrombosis.
As mentioned earlier, pelvic varicose veins are not a serious threat in the early stages of development. At the same time, this form of pathology is very difficult to detect, since the main symptom of varicose veins is enlarged veins, they appear mainly on the legs, in the pelvic area the vessels appear mainly in the later stages of development, and not always.
Even so, the disease has certain clinical symptoms and they worsen as the varicose veins progress. Let's consider the clinical picture of the pathology:
- Unpleasant and painful sensations in the lower abdomen. Initially, this symptom is unstable and vague, slight pain rarely disturbs, mainly with vigorous physical exertion during the day. The development of the disease leads to increased pain, it becomes intense, dragging in nature, can be constant.
- Sensations of pain during menstruation should be noted separately. They occur with the onset of menstruation, the peak intensity usually drops after 1-2 days of menstruation. In this case, there may be a shortage or, on the contrary, an excessive amount of secretion.
- The development of varicose veins in the pelvis is associated with pain and discomfort during intercourse. The pain is still mild at first, but increases as the disease progresses.
- The pathological process is accompanied by irregularities in the menstrual cycle. This is manifested not only in the scarcity or abundance of discharge, but also in delays in menstruation or an increase in the duration of bleeding.
- Itching, burning, swelling can occur in the vagina and on the external genitalia. The external genital organs and mucous membranes can change color, and in later stages of development there is cyanosis.
- In some cases urination problems are noted, which manifest themselves in the inability to empty the bladder completely, painful urination and sometimes even urinary incontinence.
- In the later stages of the progression of varicose veins in the perineal area, as well as on the external genital organs, veins appear. The vessels are lumpy, tortuous and often form vascular "stars".
- With severe development of varicose veins, uterine bleeding may occur, the risk of impaired reproductive functions and the development of infertility may increase.
Conservative treatment approach
For a complete treatment of varicose veins of the pelvis, a woman must follow all the recommendations of the doctor and change her lifestyle. First of all, you need to pay attention to the loads, if they are excessively high, they need to be reduced, if the patient leads an excessively sedentary lifestyle, it is necessary to play sports, take more walks for a walk, and so on.
Patients with varicose veins are strongly recommended to adjust their diet, to consume as little junk food as possible (fried, smoked, sweet in large quantities, salty), alcohol, caffeine. It is better to give preference to vegetables and fruits, fermented dairy products and cereals.
As a preventive measure for the progression of the disease and for therapeutic purposes, doctors prescribe the wearing of compression underwear for patients with varicose veins.
Despite the importance of the recommendations described above, drug therapy is still the basis of conservative treatment.
It is important to understand that all drugs, their dosage and duration of administration are determined by the doctor.
Since the main goal is to normalize blood flow and maintain vascular health, treatment is based on drugs from the following groups:
- Venotonics - are responsible for tightening the blood vessels.
- Anticoagulants - reduce blood viscosity and prevent blood clots.
Traditional treatment methods are not as effective, but when combined with drug therapy, they can significantly improve the patient's condition and generally have a positive effect on treatment. Among the popular methods, the following are particularly effective:
- Use of horse chestnut to make tinctures and special creams.
- Apply apple cider vinegar against varicose veins.
- decoctions of chamomile or larch.
It is important to understand that for the treatment of pelvic varicose veins, in traditional medicine, predominantly, recipes are used in which medicinal decoctions and infusions are taken orally. This is due to the fact that not every ointment, and especially a compress, can be used on the pelvic area.
Operative treatment methods
It is worth noting that conservative methods of treatment give really visible results, especially in the initial stages of varicose veins. At the same time, the problem can be fundamentally solved, and the disease can be completely eliminated only through surgery. In modern medicine there are many variations in the surgical treatment of varicose veins, considering the most common and effective types of surgery:
- Sclerotherapy- A special chemical composition is injected into the lumen of the affected vein, which has sclerosing, i. e. adhesive properties. As a result, the vein is stuck together, thereby excluded from the circulation and replaced by connective tissue.
- Laparoscopy- Small punctures are made in the abdominal cavity through which the ovarian vein is tied off with the help of surgical devices for further removal.
- Endovascular surgery- The surgeon reaches the affected vessels via the femoral vein. The ovarian vein is then embolized with special devices.