Varicose veins in our body cannot only be localized on the legs. The pelvic area is another place where varicose veins can also appear. A pathological condition in which there are usually dilated veins in the small pelvis occurs in women and is accompanied by discomfort and periodic pain in the lower abdomen. In men, there are also varicose veins of the pelvis, but these are mainly manifested by the expansion of the spermatic cord veins (varicocele). This pathological process in men can be accompanied by discomfort, heaviness in the scrotum and pain in intimacy.
According to statistics, varicose veins of the pelvis, or as it is also called - the syndrome of chronic pelvic pain, occur mainly in young women - between the ages of 18 and 48 years. The number of patients with this disease increases many times over with age. The statistics are disappointing. Thus, at the age of 18-19 years, 15-18% of women are found to have varicose veins of the pelvis, and by the age of 48 their number increases to 70-80%.
Causes of Pelvic Varicose Veins
The first reason is physical inactivity. It also includes the specificity of the patient's work, "sitting" or "standing" work. If a person stays in orthostasis for a long time, the venous outflow is disturbed and this leads to stagnation in the small pelvis. The valves in the pathologically enlarged veins no longer adhere firmly to one another, a gap is created between the valves and the blood is diverted downwards by gravity. The blood thickens in such veins, which can lead to thrombosis.
The second reason is pregnancy. During pregnancy, the uterus increases in size and begins to press on the veins underneath. Even during pregnancy, the hormonal background changes, the volume of circulating blood in the pelvis increases.
However, to reassure women preparing for conception and pregnancy, such varicose veins do not pose a direct threat. With varicose veins of the small pelvis, the birth is usually unremarkable. An unpleasant moment - in 30-40% of pregnant women there is an enlargement of the veins of the vulva and perineum. However, we must remember that immediately after birth, these veins decrease significantly and disappear completely after a year. After birth, varicose veins of the pelvis only remain in 2-6% of patients.
The third reason is the presence of various types of gynecological pathologies, for the treatment of which hormonal drugs are used.
The fourth reason is smoking. It is very dangerous to smoke while using hormonal contraceptives. Smoking thickens the blood just like hormonal contraceptives. Hence the many ridiculous accidents known in medicine when smoking girls taking hormonal contraceptives died of thrombosis.
The fifth reason is obesity. If you are overweight, the load on the blood vessels increases significantly.
The sixth reason is the ecological situation in the residential area, air pollution in cities, especially in megacities, increases the risk of developing varicose veins.
The main symptoms of varicose veins of the pelvis
- painful periods;
- recurrent pain in the lower abdomen, as well as in the pelvic area, radiating to the sacrum, lower back, perineum;
- Pain and discomfort in the vulva or vagina during and after intimacy;
- excessive discharge of mucus from the vagina, usually in the second half of the menstrual cycle;
- visible expansion of the venous vessels in the genital area, in the groin. "Stars", "Mesh" on the seat and on the back of the thighs.
What to do if you have symptoms of pelvic varicose veins?
If you find all of this in yourself, do not hesitate to visit a doctor, otherwise you will not have to wait long due to possible complications.
The first doctor you should see is a gynecologist.
He conducts an examination and names all the necessary examinations. An ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs is carried out in all patients with suspected pelvic varicose veins.
The patient is referred to a phlebologist to clarify the diagnosis. You will perform a duplex ultrasound scan of the lower extremity veins (USDG) which will give you a complete picture of venous outflow.
In difficult cases, a phlebologist may prescribe additional examination methods (CT, MRI or diagnostic laparoscopy). To make an accurate diagnosis and determine the degree of the disease, these studies are enough.
The degree of varicose veins of the pelvis
- 1 degree - veins of the small pelvis up to 5 mm in diameter (damage to any venous plexus of the small pelvis is detected), the course of the vessel already takes on a tortuous appearance;
- 2 degrees - the size of the veins is 6-10 mm; Varicose veins on ultrasound are visible in both the entire pelvis and can affect only the ovarian plexus or veins in the uterus or the veins of the myometrium;
- Grade 3 is total pelvic varicose veins, varicose veins are more than 10-12 mm in diameter.
How do you treat pelvic varicose veins?
- Fight against hypodynamia. If work is combined with prolonged sitting or standing, warm up after 1–1, 5 hours;
- Smoking cessation, alcohol (especially if you are pregnant! );
- Wearing compression garments (stockings, tights) to improve venous drainage from the lower extremities;
- Wear comfortable shoes, avoid high heels;
- Diet (exclusion from the diet of salty, spicy, fried). Salty food always keeps fluid in the body, which leads to edema, an increase in blood pressure - as a result, blood flow through the veins worsens. You need to include more fiber in your diet (fruits, vegetables, herbs);
- Contrast shower (especially in the thighs, perineum, lower abdomen);
- Physiotherapy and breathing exercises.
- Phlebotonics - to improve the tone of varicose veins, reduce their permeability;
- Horse chestnut extract - to relieve inflammation and swelling;
- Troxerutin - to improve blood flow from varicose veins, increase the tone of veins, reduce inflammation and edema;
- Vitamin C - to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, reduce their fragility.
Venous gels and ointments are not used in the treatment of pelvic varicose veins due to the internal location of the affected veins.
Doctors recommend a mandatory combination of drug therapy with the wearing of compression stockings (stockings, tights). There is a special need for compression stockings during pregnancy.
Surgical operation is an extreme measure that is used when medical correction is impossible and ineffective, and the disease is very advanced and can cause a number of complications.
Different techniques are used depending on the prevalence, location and diameter of pathological veins. If surgical intervention is required, the choice of surgical device type is individual, as it all depends on the location and prevalence.